Friday, July 3, 2015

Tianjin City= Tianjin Shi


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Tientsin" redirects here. For other uses, see Tientsin (disambiguation).
Tianjin Municipality
Clockwise from top: Jinwan Square, Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, Xikai Church, Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
Clockwise from top: Jinwan Square, Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, Xikai Church, Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Coordinates: 39°08′N 117°11′ECoordinates: 39°08′N 117°11′E
Country People's Republic of China
Settled ca. 340 BC
 - County-level
 - Township-

13 districts, three counties
240 towns and villages
 • Type Municipality
 • CPC Secretary Huang Xingguo
 • Mayor Huang Xingguo
 • Congress Chairman Xiao Huaiyuan
 • Conference Chairman He Lifeng
 • Municipality 11,760 km2 (4,540 sq mi)
 • Urban 174.9 km2 (67.5 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,606.9 km2 (2,164.8 sq mi)
Population (2014 census)
 • Municipality 14,722,000
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
 • Urban 11,524,238
 • Metro 11,524,238
Demonym Tianjinese
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 300000 – 301900
Area code(s) 22
GDP 2014
 - Total CNY1.572 trillion
(US$255.95 billion) (20th)
 - Per capita CNY 106,795
(US$17,385) (1st)
HDI (2010) 0.795[1] (3rd) – high
Licence plate prefixes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M
E (taxis)
City flower Chinese rose
Tianjin name SVG.svg
"Tianjin City", as written in Chinese calligraphy
Postal Map Tientsin
Literal meaning "Emperor's ford"
Tianjin ([tʰjǽntɕín]; Chinese: 天津; Tianjinese: /tʰiɛn˨˩tɕin˨˩/~[tʰjɛ̃̀ɦɪ̀ŋ]; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC, and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.
In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China.[2] Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of Bohai Sea. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai, which is a new growth pole in China and is a hub of advanced industry and financial activity. Since the mid-19th century, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to the nation's capital. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government.



The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River which entered the sea in this area at one point. Before this time, it was open sea.
17th century depiction of Tianjin
There are diverse viewpoints for the origin of the name, "Tianjin". One version states that "Tianjin" as a word initially appeared in the poems of Qu Yuan, a famous patriotic poet of Chu State in the Warring States period. In his masterpiece Li Sao, there is a verse, ”At dawn, departing from the Port of the Heaven” (Chinese: 朝发轫于天津兮; pinyin: Zhāo fārèn yú tiānjīn xī). Another view is that "Tianjin" also used to be a name of constellation in the Chinese traditional astronomical system as recorded in the Astronomy Record in the Book of Sui. A third view states that "Tianjin" was recorded in the River Record in History of the Jin. The Origin from Emperor’s Name-giving-This perhaps is the most reliable point of view. Tianjin means literally The Ferry Site of Emperor (The Son of Heaven). It was said that Emperor Yongle, who was one of the sons of Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, before his enthronement for getting the crown of the Emperor, launched a war against the successor of Emperor Taizu, Zhu Yunwen, the grandson of Emperor Hongwu in Nanjing. He departed from the Gu River of Tianjin and, after his success in enthronement, gave his departure site a name: Tianjin.

The Grand Canal

The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui Dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404, Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Yongle Emperor renamed the city Tianjin meaning "the Heavenly Ford" to indicate that the Emperor (the Son of Heaven) forded the river at that point. This is because he had indeed forded the river in Tianjin when in contention with his nephew for the throne. Later, a fort was established in Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (天津卫), the Fort of Tianjin.

Qing Dynasty

During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou (州) in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731. Later it was to upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu (府) before becoming a relay station (驻地) under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.
1902 map of Tianjin

Opening up as a treaty port

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavour to Tianjin.
The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Our Lady of Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.
In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.
Concessions era bank building on Heping Road
In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.
Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tianjin from the Philippines.
Tianjin was established as a municipality of China in 1927.
Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.
1939 Tianjin flood

Second Sino-Japanese War

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.
On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei's Japan-controlled puppet state. Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Post World War II

More recently, since 2008 Tianjin has held the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum (also called Summer Davos), in alternating years with another Chinese city, Dalian.[3]
In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin.[4]
Tianjin Haihe Jinwan Plaza
Panorama of Hai River


Map of the Hai River Basin.
Satellite image of Tianjin
Hai river
Tianjin is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, looking out to the provinces Shandong and Liaoning across those waters, bordered by Beijing 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by Hebei. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 km2 (4,579.41 sq mi). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 km (706.80 mi) of land border.[5] It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).
The Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.


Tianjin features a four-season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.66 °C (54.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 540 millimetres (21.3 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the humid continental zone, with parts of the municipality being semi-arid (Köppen Dwa/BSk, respectively).[6]

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

university of florida. gaineville

Admission → How to Apply

The UF Graduate School welcomes you to apply for one of the highest quality and most affordable graduate education opportunities available today. Please read the information on this webpage and follow all instructions carefully, so you can make the application process work smoothly for you. All links, forms, codes and addresses you need to apply are provided here. (Some forms mentioned on this webpage are PDF files you can read, fill out and print with Adobe Reader. If Adobe Reader is not on your computer already, please click on this link to download it for free: Get Adobe Reader.)
How the Application Process Works
Application Steps
Application Fee
Test Score Codes
Other Useful Links

How the Application Process Works

Two or three UF units evaluate your graduate admission application:
• The UF Office of Admission, which determines your eligibility for admission to the university.
• The department you want to major in, which determines your eligibility for its graduate program.
• If you are a non-US applicant, the UF International Center, which determines your eligibility for a student visa after you are admitted, on the basis of your reported preexisting funds.
Please note: The UF Graduate School is not involved in this process. Contact the department you are applying to if you have questions about your application.

Application Steps

1. Read all the information and instructions on this webpage about the application process.
2. Read all the information and instructions on the UF Office of Admissions graduate admission webpages. Click on this link to get to them: UF Office of Admissions: Graduate Admissions.
3. Contact the department you want to major in to find out its application requirements and deadlines. Click on this link for graduate contacts: Department and Program Contacts.
4. Fill out and submit your online application and application fee payment by clicking on this link: Applying Online. If you are unable to apply online click on this link for PDF admission forms you can read and fill out with Adobe Reader: PDF Admission Forms.
5. Have your official test scores (FE, GMAT, GRE, IELTS, MELAB, TOEFL, TSE) and transcripts (with official translations of them, if the originals are not in English) sent to:
UF Office of Admission
POB 114000 (201 Criser Hall)
Gainesville FL 32611-4000
6. Send these materials to the department you want to major in:
• Statement of purpose (letter of intent).
• Resume or curriculum vita.
• Recommendation letters. Click on this link for a PDF copy you can read and fill out with Adobe Reader: Recommendation Letter Form
• Test scores (FE, GMAT, GRE, IELTS, MELAB, TOEFL, TSE).
• Transcripts (with official translations, if the originals are not in English).
• Any other materials required by the graduate program you are applying for.
• A graduate fellowship/assistantship application. Click on this link for a PDF copy you can read and fill out with Adobe Reader: Application for Fellowship or Assistantship.
Please note: You can now opt to submit your statement of purpose, resume and recommendation letters online via the UF Office of Admissions online application system. Official test scores received at the UF Office of Admissions will automatically be made available to your department, but check to see if your department requires its own copy of your test scores or any other application materials.
7. E-mail your department to let it know you have applied online and have sent it application materials. Click on this link for graduate contacts: Department and Program Contacts

Application Fee

UF’s nonrefundable application fee is $30. You can pay online by credit card (for a $1.75 extra) or mail your payment (your name and UFID number on the check and a cover memorandum attached to the check) to:
UF Office of Admission
POB 114000 (201 Criser Hall)
Gainesville FL 32611-4000

Test Score Codes

The University of Florida’s code for submission of GRE and TOEFL scores is 5812. For GMAT scores, check with the department to which you are apply for the departmental code, by which GMAC sends its scores.

Other Useful Links

UF Graduate Admission Brochure (PDF Version)
Department and Program Contacts
Recommendation Letter Form
ETS: Educational Testing Service (GMAT, GRE, TOEFL, TSE)
IELTS: International English Language Testing System
MELAB: Michigan English Language Assessment Battery
UF International Center
The University of Florida looks forward to receiving your application soon!